Skip to main content

RefZone

Harvard referencing - guides and examples

Harvard referencing system is the most common style of referencing used at Staffordshire University and is the officially adopted standard for all students except those studying modules in law or psychology.

This guides below provide examples of how a wide range of information sources should be referenced according to the University's approved Harvard style, including the order of the elements and punctuation used. For each source there are examples of how to cite within the text and how to write your list of references.

If you cannot find the type of information you wish to reference included in the guide please contact us at ask@staffs.ac.uk.

You can also use our interactive guide to help you understand how to reference a wide range of resources correctly. 

Referencing sources in Harvard: Examples

Please select one of the below ranges of letters to find out more information about how to reference sources.

Examples beginning with A

Acts of Parliament (UK Statutes)

Format:
COUNTRY. Name of Act: Name of Sovereign. Chapter Number – in italics or underlined. (Year of Publication – in brackets) Place of Publication: Publisher.
 

Bibliography example:
GREAT BRITAIN. Modern Slavery Act. Chapter 30. (2015) London: The Stationery Office.

In-text example:

The Modern Slavery Act 2015 indicated that... 

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Name of Act, Year of Publication, s. – followed by section number – in brackets)

Acts of Parliament (UK Statutes - Online)

Format:
COUNTRY. Name of Act: Name of Sovereign. Chapter Number – in italics or underlined. (Year of Publication – in brackets) Place of Publication: Publisher. [Online] Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets]


Bibliography example:
GREAT BRITAIN. Supply and Appropriation (Main Estimates) Act. Chapter 31. (2015) London: The Stationery Office.[Online] Available from - http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2015/31/pdfs/ukpga_20150031_en.pdf. [Accessed: 20th August 2015].

In-text example:

The Supply and Appropriation (Main Estimates) Act 2015 indicates that...

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Name of Act, Year of Publication, s. – followed by section number – in brackets)

Archive material/Special collections

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Title-in italics or underlined [Material type–in square brackets]. Collection. Shelfmark. Archive/Library, City.

Bibliography example:
TURNER, P.S. (1906) Image of an Artist [Manuscript] Holden Collection. 600. Holden Library. London.

In-text example:
(Turner, 1906)

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Atlas

Atlases can be referenced in the same format as a book. If no author is available then the title of the Atlas can be used.


Format for Atlas with Author:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication – in brackets) Title of Atlas in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Format for Atlas - no Author:
Title of Atlas – in italics or underlined. (Year of publication - in brackets) Series title and/or volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:
Walter, S. (2015) The Island: London Mapped London: Prestel Press.

The Times Concise Atlas of the World. (2014) 8th Ed. London: Times Books.

In text example:
(Walter, 2015)
As can be seen in The Times Concise Atlas of the World (2014)

Author: Contribution/Chapter in a Book

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Title of chapter/contribution. In: Author or Editor of Publication - Surname, Initials with (ed.) or (eds.) – in brackets, if relevant. Book Title - in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.


Bibliography example:
SCHMALING, K. B. (2012) Asthma. In: Weiner, I. B., Nezu, A. M., Nezu, C.M. & Geller, P.A. (eds). Handbook of Psychology, Health Psychology. Aylesbury, Bucks: John Wiley & Sons.

In-text example:
If you refer to an author who has contributed/produced a chapter in an edited book you will need to cite their name (rather than the book editor) in the body of your work.

The Bibliography must contain details of both the author providing the contribution and the author/editor(s) of the book (see above bibliography example for format).

(Schmaling, 2012)
As noted by Schmaling (2012)...

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets).


Examples beginning with B

Blogs

References from blogs will need to commence with the name of the blog owner and include the date and title of the posting (see example).

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of posting - in brackets) Title of blog entry - in italics or underlined. [Online –in square brackets] Date the blog entry was written. Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets].

Bibliography example:
PLATT, J. (2015) Ring-Tailed Lemurs Threatened by Illegal Pet Trade. [Online] August 7th 2015. Available from: http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/extinction-countdown/ring-tailed-lemurs-pet-trade. [Accessed: 10th August 2015].

In-text example:
(Platt, 2015)
As can be seen in Platt (2015) results...

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number if available. - in brackets).

Book (1 author)

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. Author - SURNAME, Initials & Author - SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Book Title - in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:
NEVILLE, C.(2010) The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. 2nd Ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

In-text example:
(Neville, 2010)
Neville (2010) suggests that...

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (First Author’s Surname, Second Author’s Surname & Third Author's Surname. Year of Publication, p. – followed by page

Book (2 authors)

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. Author - SURNAME, Initials & Author - SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Book Title - in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:
ABIGAIL, R. & CAHN, D. (2011) Managing conflict through communication. 4th edn, Boston:Allyn & Bacon.


In-text example:

(Abigail & Cahn, 2011)
Abigail & Cahn (2010) also stated that... 

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (First Author’s Surname, Second Author’s Surname & Third Author's Surname. Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Book (3 authors)

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. Author - SURNAME, Initials & Author - SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Book Title - in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:
VLADIMIROV, A., GAVRILENKO, K. & MICHAJLOWSKI, A., (2010) Assessing Information Security : Strategies, Tactics, Logic and Framework. Harlow: Prentice Hall.

In-text example:
(Vladimirov, Gavrilenko & Michaljlowksi, 2010)
As noted by Vladimirov, Gavrilenko & Michaljlowksi (2010)
“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (First Author’s Surname, Second Author’s Surname & Third Author's Surname. Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Book (4 or more authors)

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Book Title - in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:
KOTLER, P., BROWN, L., BURTON, S., DEANS, K. & ARMSTRONG, G. (2010) Marketing. NSW: Pearson Australia.

In-text examples:
(Kotler et al, 2010)
As concluded by Kotler et al (2010)… 

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname et al. Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Book: Chapter in a Book

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Title of chapter/contribution. In: Author or Editor of Publication - Surname, Initials with (ed.) or (eds.) – in brackets, if relevant. Book Title - in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:
POLLATOS, O. (2015) The role of the body from the inside for embodied cognition. In: Coello, Y. & Fischer, M. H. (eds). Perceptual and Emotional Embodiment: Foundations of Embodied Cognition. Volume 1. London: Taylor & Francis Group.

In-text example:
If you refer to an author who has contributed/produced a chapter in an edited book you will need to cite their name in the body of your work. The bibliography must contain details of both the author providing the contribution and the author/editor(s) of the book (see above bibliography example for format).
(Pollatos, 2015)
Pollatos (2015) also posited...

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Book (Editor/s)

If the book has an editor then (ed.) or (eds.) – both in brackets, is added after the author’s name.

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (ed.) or (eds.) - in brackets for editor(s) (Year of publication - in brackets) Book Title - in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:
FONTANA-GIUSTI, G. (ed.) (2013) Designing Cities for People: Social, Environmental and Psychological Sustainability. London: Earthscan.

BRENNER, N. AND KEIL, R. (eds.) (2014) The Global Cities Reader. London: Routledge.

In-text examples:
(ed. Fontana-Giusti, 2013)
(eds. Brenner & Keil, 2014)

Books (part of a series)

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (ed.) or (eds.) - in brackets for editor(s) (Year of publication - in brackets) Book Title - in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:
MCILROY, D. (2013) Studying @ University: How to be a Successful Student. Sage Essential Study Skills. London: Sage.

In-text example:
(McIlroy, 2013)
The evidence supports McIlroy’s (2013) theory that…

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number)

Book (multiple works by an author in the same year)

If you refer to an author who has produced more than one work in the same year you will need to add a lower case alphabetical letter after the year of publication i.e. 2007a, 2007b. The book that you cite first should be the one that is referred to as ‘a’ and the second should be ‘b’ and so on. Do not worry about the chronological order in which the author actually published the works.

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (ed.) or (eds.) - in brackets for editor(s) (Year of publication and alphabetical letter - in brackets) Book Title - in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:
CARLSON, N. R. (2013a) Foundations of Physiology and Psychology. 7th Ed. Boston, Mass: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.
CARLSON, N. R. (2013b) Physiology of Behaviour. London: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

In-text example:
(Carlson, 2013a)
(Carlson, 2013b)
Carlson (2013a) commented that…
Carlson (2013b) indicated that…

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of
Publication, p. – followed by page number)

Book (Electronic)

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initial(s). (Year of publication - in brackets) Title - in italics or underlined. [Online – in square brackets] City of publication: Publisher. Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets]

Bibliography example:
PARISI, L. (2013) Contagious Architecture: Computation, Aesthetics, and Space.[Online] Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Available from: http://www.ebrary.com [Accessed: 6/5/2015]

In-text example:(Parisi, 2013)
As identified by Parisi (2013)

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

British Standards

The information you need to reference correctly can be found on the title page of the standard.

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Standard Number: Year. Title of the standard in italics or underlined. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Bibliography example:
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE. (1990) BS5605:1990. Recommendations for citing and referencing published material. Milton Keynes: BSI.

In-text example:
(British Standards Institute, 1990)

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Examples beginning with C

CD-ROMS (accompanying books)

Many books now have a CD-ROM accompanying them. When using material from this source the following information needs to be included in your reference.


Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, initials or name of originator of item if no author present. (Year of publication - in brackets) Title of the main publication. [CD-ROM – in square brackets]. Place of Publication: publisher.

Bibliography example:
BARNES, C. (2010) Working with Technology. [CD-ROM] London: TechPress.

Who’s who 1897-1998. (1998) [CD-ROM] London: Oxford University Press.

In-text example:
(Who’s who, 1998)
(Barnes, 1997)
“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets).

Command Papers/Official Publications

Format:
COUNTRY. Name of Committee, Department or Royal Commission (Year of publication – in brackets) Title of publication - in italics or underlined. Place of Publication: Publisher. (Paper number – if available in brackets).

Bibliography examples:
GREAT BRITAIN. Healthcare Commission, Audit Commission for Local Authorities in England and Wales. National Audit Office. (2013) Tackling Child Obesity: First Steps. London: Stationery Office.

GREAT BRITAIN. Department of Health. (2010). London’s Ambulance Service: Government response to the Second Report from the Health Committee Session 2009-2010. London: H.M.S.O. (Cm 3009).

In-text example:
(Great Britain. Healthcare Commission, Audit Commission for Local Authorities in England and Wales. National Audit Office, 2013).

Statistics from the Great Britain Healthcare Commission, Audit Commission for Local Authorities in England and Wales National Audit Office. (2013) show that……

(Great Britain. Department of Health, 2010).

As indicated by the Great Britain Department of Health (2010)

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Computer Games/Programs

Format:
ORIGINATOR/AUTHOR. (year of publication - in brackets) Game or program title - in italics or underlined. [Medium of item - in square brackets]. Series information and any dates or numeric information - if necessary. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:
BETHESDA SOFTWORKS. (2013) Skyrim. [DISC] PlayStation2. Maryland, US: BETHESDA SOFTWORKS LLC.

In-text example:
If you refer to a game or program in the body of your work, the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics:
....as can be seen in Skyrim (2013)

Conference Papers

Conference Papers are similar to authors who contribute chapters to books, i.e. the contribution appears as part of a wider publication.

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials or AUTHORING BODY OR GROUP. (Year of publication - in brackets) Title of Paper. In - Full Title of Conference - in italics or underlined. Series title and numbers if available. Location and Date of Conference. Place of Publication: Publisher. Page numbers of paper.

Bibliography example:
FRIMECHE, M. (2014) Knowledge management and information technology. In ISKO-Maghreb: Concepts and Tools for knowledge Management (ISKO-Maghreb) International Symposium. Algiers, Sunday 9th November to Monday 10th February 2014. Algiers: IEEE. pp. 1-7.

In-text example:
(Frimeche, 2014)
Frimeche (2014) noted that…..

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Corporate authors (groups, committees and companies)

Includes publications by groups, committees, government departments, companies etc.

Format:
COUNTRY. NAME OF ISSUING BODY. (Year of publication in brackets) Title of publication – in italics or underlined. Place of publication: Publisher. (Report Number – if available in brackets).

Bibliography Example:
GREAT BRITAIN. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY. (1977) Tidal Power Barrages in the Severn Trent Estuary: Recent Evidence on their Feasibility. London: H. M.S. O. (Energy Papers 23) SPORT INDUSTRY RESEARCH CENTRE. (2005). Sport Market Forecasts 2005-2009. Sheffield: Sport Industry Research Centre.

In-text example:
(Great Britain. Department of Energy, 1977)
The Great Britain Department of Energy (1977) concluded that…
(Sport Industry Research Centre, 2005)
Figures from the Sport Industry Research Centre (2005) show that…

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Corporate authors Online (groups, committees and companies)

*These examples are for the especial attention of Nursing Students

ROYAL COLLEGE OF NURSING. (2015) RCN Pain Knowledge and Skills Framework for the Nursing Team. [Online] Available from: http://www.rcn.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/638881/004984-.pdf. [Accessed: 6th October 2015]

NURSING AND MIDWIFERY COUNCIL. (2015) The Code: Professional Standards of Practice and Behaviour for Nurses and Midwives. [Online] Available from: http://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/nmc-publications/revised-new-nmc-code.pdf. [Accessed: 6th October 2015]

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR HEALTH AND CARE EXCELLENCE. (2012) Hip Fracture. [Online]  March 2012. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs16/resources/guidance-hip-fracture-pdf. [Accessed: 6th October 2015]

NURSING AND MIDWIFERY COUNCIL. (2012) Midwives Rules and Standards 2012. [Online] Available from: http://www.nmc-uk.org/Documents/NMC-Publications/Midwives%20Rules%20and%20Standards%202012.pdf.  [Accessed: 11th March 2014]

 

Examples beginning with D

Dance (live performance)

Format:

Choreographer’s- FAMILY/SURNAME, initials. (Premier date - in brackets) Title – in italics or underlined. [Venue, place of performance and date seen – in square brackets]

Bibliography example:

James, D. & Doughty, A. (2015) Cinderella. [New Vic Theatre, Stoke on Trent. 20th May 2015]

In-text Example:
(Cinderella, 2007)

Dance (DVD/ Video)

Format:
Director/producer – FAMILY/SURNAME, initials. (Year published or first transmission in brackets) Title of Video or programme – in italics or underlined. [Material type e.g. DVD/video – in square brackets], Production company or publisher [further details to identify dance works]

Bibliography example:
HIJIKATA, T. (2010) Summer Storm [DVD]. Microcinema. [Video dance performances plus interviews]

In-text example:
(Summer Storm, 2010)

Dictionaries

In some cases Dictionaries may not have authors so your citation or reference can use the title of the work.

Formats:

Dictionary Author/Editor present:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (ed.) or (eds.)-in brackets for editor(s) (Year of publication - in brackets) Dictionary Title – in italics or underlined. Series title and/or volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Dictionary- no Author:
Title of Dictionary – in italics or underlined. (Year of publication - in brackets) Series title and/or volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography examples:
HAWKINS, J. M. (ed.) (1986) The Oxford Reference Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McGraw-Hill. Dictionary of Engineering. (2003). 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

In-text examples:
(Hawkins, 1986)
As noted by Hawkins (1986)
(McGraw-Hill, 2003)
McGraw-Hill (2003) indicated that...

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Discussion Forum

References from a discussion list will need to commence with the name of the author of a posting to the list.

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of posting - in brackets) Title of discussion posting - in italics or underlined. [Online –in square brackets]. Date the entry was written. Name of discussion list. Available from – discussion list address. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets].

Bibliography example:
Probytes, A. (2015) Can Online Resources Help In Teaching History Better. [Online] January 4th 2015. Education Week Forum. Available from: http://www.edweek.org/forums/ [Accessed: 2nd May 2015].

In-text example:

(Probytes, 2015)
As can be seen in Probyte's (2015) results...

 

Examples beginning with E

E-Books

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initial(s). (Year of publication - in brackets) Title - in italics or underlined. [Online – in square brackets] City of publication: Publisher. Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets]

Bibliography example:
PARISI, L. (2013) Contagious Architecture: Computation, Aesthetics, and Space.[Online] Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Available from: http://www.ebrary.com [Accessed: 6/5/2015]

In-text example:(PARISI, 2013)
As identified by Parisi (2013)

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Email communication

If you use personal email communication to support your assignment please ensure that you have the consent of those involved in the email.

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of communication – in brackets) Title of communication – in italics or underlined. [Medium of communication – in square brackets] Receiver of Communication – Surname, initials. Day and month of communication.

Bibliography example:

GIMBLETT, K. (2015) Interface Design. [E-mail]. Message to: McGarvey, V. 10 July 2015.

In-text example:

(Gimblett, 2015)
As Gimblett (2015) suggests...

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Encyclopaedia entry

Encyclopaedias often contain entries or articles by a collection of authors. Hence, when citing and referencing from Encyclopaedias use the same format as you would when referencing an author’s contributory chapter or article in a book.

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (ed.) or (eds.)-in brackets for editor(s) (Year of publication - in brackets) Title of entry or article. In: Author or Editor of Publication - Surname, Initials with (ed.) or (eds.) - if relevant. Title of Encyclopaedia - in italics or underlined. Series title and/or volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:

GHISELIN, M. T. (2001) Darwin, Charles (Darwinism). In: Levin, S. A. (ed.) Encyclopaedia of Biodiversity. Volume 2 D-FI. London: Academic Press.

In-text example:
(Ghiselin, 2001)
As suggested by Ghiselin (2001)….

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Exhibition catalogues

Cite and reference Exhibition Catalogues in the same format as a book. However, if the exhibition catalogue has no author, use the title of the gallery or museum.

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. or Gallery/Museum name. (ed.) or (eds.)-in brackets for editor(s) (Year of publication - in brackets) Catalogue Title - in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:
REED, P. (2005) Groundswell: constructing the contemporary landscape: published on the occasion of the exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, 25th February – 16 May 2005. New York: Museum of Modern Art.

Museum of Modern Art. (2006). Edvard Munch: the modern life of the soul: published on the occasion of the exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York 17 February – 8 May 2006 with an introduction by Kynaston McShine. New York: Museum of Modern Art.

In-text examples:
(Reed, 2005)
As Reed (2005) suggests...
(Museum of Modern Art. 2006)
As the Museum of Modern Art (2006) exhibition highlights……

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets).

Facebook

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME/ORGANISATION, initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Title - in italics or underlined. [Online] Date of post entry. Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets].

Bibliography example:
JONES, S. (2014) Referencing Group. [Online] 5th May. Available from - www.facebook.com [Accessed 09/05/09].

In-text example:
(Jones, 2014) raised....
In his Facebook entry Jones (2014) suggested...

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets.

Film on video/DVD

Format:
Title - in italics or underlined. (Year of distribution - in brackets) Format type i.e. film, animated film. Directed by – name of directors. [Material type – in square brackets]. Place of distribution: Distribution Company.

Bibliography examples:
2001: a Space Odyssey. (1968) Film. Directed by Stanley Kubrick. [DVD]. UK: Warner Home Video.
Spirited Away. (2001) Animated Film. Directed by Hayao Miyazaki and Hatao Miyazaki. [DVD] UK: Optimum Releasing.

In-text example:
If you refer to a film in the body of your work, the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics:
(Spirited Away, 2001)…
This is highlighted by Dave Bowman’s character in the film 2001: a Space Odyssey (1968).

 

Image in a book

Images, art work, graphs and charts from books are not referenced in the same way as book chapters. In-text you need to mention the image or art work and the page number, but in the Bibliography you will need to reference the source (book, etc.) where you found the image, art work, etc.

Bibliography format:

FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (ed.) or (eds.)-in brackets for editor(s) (Year of publication - in brackets) Book Title - in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:

If you refer to an image in your work from a book, for example a photograph from the following book, you will need to reference the source (book) where the item can be found:
FISH, J. (2004). Photographs and Art. London: Fish and Sons.

In-text:

In-text references to works of art, images, etc. in a book are highlighted in the text by italics or underlining the title of the work and following it with the (surname of the author, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number where the image can be located – in brackets):

 

The photograph Night time by Bloggs in 2001 (Fish, 2004, p.67) shows..... This was highlighted in Blogg’s Night time (Fish, 2004, p. 67).

 

Image Online

If no title is available, provide a brief descripton of the image. If not date is available, you must state: No Date. Format:

FAMILY/SURNAME(S), Initials. (Year of publication) Title or description of image - in italics or underlined. Name of organisation or website. [Online Image] Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date].

Bibliography example:

SMITH, E. (2015) Over Yellowstone. National Geographic. [Online Image] Available from - http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/photography. [Accessed: 15th August 2015].

In-text:

(Smith, 2015)

Interview (you have conducted)

Format:

Name of person interviewed – FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of interview – in brackets) Title of interview – in italics or underlined. [Interview – medium of source]. Date the interview was conducted.

 

Bibliography example:
BIGGS, P. (2015) Development of library support for social work students. [Interview]. 24th July 2015.

In-text example:

(Biggs, 2015)
...as indicated by Biggs (2015)

Interview (recorded)

Format:

Name of person interviewed - FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of interview – in brackets) Interview with Author and Date – in italics of underlined. Place of interview. [Recording in possession of author]

Bibliography example:

JOHNSTON, E. (2015). Interview with E.Johnston on 15th April 2015. Stoke on Trent. [Recording in possession of author]

In-text example:

(Johnston, 2015)
...as noted by Johnston (2015)

 


Journal article (printed journal article)

Printed article format:

FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication – in brackets) Title of article. Title of journal - in italics or underlined. Volume number. (Part number/month – in brackets). p. followed by page numbers.

Bibliography examples:

TEFTS, K. & BLAKSEE, S. (2009) Did you hear the one about Boolean operators? Incorporating comedy into library instruction. Reference Services Review. 28 (4). p. 369-378.

In-text example:

(Trefts & Blaksee, 2009)
This supports Trefts & Blaksee’s (2000) evidence that…

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

 

Journal article (Online/electronic journal article)

Online article format:

FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication – in brackets) Title of article. Title of journal - in italics or underlined. [Online – in square brackets] Volume number. (Part number/month – in brackets). p followed by page numbers. Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets]

Bibliography example:

MARTIN, D. (2015). The superhero and the cyberpunk: transforming genres in Spider-Man 2099. Journal of Media & Cultural Studies. [Online] 29 (3). p.466-478. Available from: http://www.tandfOnline.com [Accessed 19/08/2015]

In-text example:

(Martin, 2015)
According to Martin (2015)...

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets).

 

Journal article (Online) with more than one author

Format:

FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Yes of publication - in brackets) Title of article Title of journal - in italics or underlined. [Online - square brackets] Volume number. (Part number/month - in brackets). p followed by page numbers. Availble from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets]

Bibliography example:

Fennell, D., Liberato, A.S.Q., Hayden, B. & Fujino, Y. (2013) Consuming Anime, Television & New Media [Online] 14 (5). p. 440-456. Available from - http://tvn.sagepub.com.ezproxy.staffs.ac.uk/cgi/content/long/14/5/440. [Accessed: 27/06/2015]

In-text example:

Fennell et al. (2013)
(Fennell et al, 2013)

 


Examples starting with K

 

Kindle and other e-book readers

Some e-book readers, such as the Amazon Kindle, do not identify page numbers.
If page numbers are not available, use the chapters instead for indicating a quoted section.

Type of e-book can include: Kindle, EPUB, Adobe Digital Editions etc.

Format:

FAMILY/SURNAME, INITIALS. (Year of publication - in brackets) Book Title - in intalics or underlined. [Type of e-book in square brackets].
Available from - URL of where the e-book was downloaded from. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets].

Bibliography Example:

LEE, H. (2014) To Kill a Mockingbird. [Kindle]. Available from - http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B00K1XOV5G. [Accessed: 25/06/2015].

In-text:

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Year of Publication, followed by chapter number – in brackets).

Direct quotations when page numbers are not available example:

"According to Miss Stephanie Crawford, however, Atticus was leaving the post office when Mr. Ewell approached him, cursed him, spat on him, and threatened to kill him."
(Lee, 2014, Ch. 23)


Examples beginning

 

Law Reports

When referencing Law Reports, square brackets are used for the year of publication when the date is essential for finding the report. Round brackets are used when the date is of assistance to when a case was reported in law reports which also have continuous volume numbers.

Format:

Names of parties – in italics. [Year – in square brackets or round brackets – see above] Date and/or volume – if available and abbreviated name of the report and number of first page.

Bibliography example:

Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech AHA. [1986] A.C. 112.
Parkinson v Axon. (1951) 2 K.B. 678.

In-text example:

As highlighted in Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech AHA [1986]
Parkinson v Axon (1951) indicated that ...

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Party A v Party B, date, p. followed by page number in brackets)

 

Law Reports (Online)

When referencing Law Reports, square brackets are used for the year of publication when the date is essential for finding the report. Round brackets are used when the date is of assistance to when a case was reported in law reports which also have continuous volume numbers.

Format:

Names of parties – in italics. [Year – in square brackets orround brackets – see above] Date Volume [Online] – if available and abbreviated name of the report and number of first page. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets]

Bibliography example:

Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech AHA. [1986] A.C. 112. [Online] [Accessed: 30/06/2014]
Parkinson v Axon. (1951) 2 K.B. 678. [Online] [Accessed: 30/01/2015]

In-text example:

As highlighted in Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech AHA (1986)
Parkinson v Axon (1951) indicated that ...

"Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Party A v Party B, date, p. followed by page number in brackets)

 

Lecture

Format: FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of lecture – in brackets) Title of lecture – in italics or underlined. [Lecture]. Title of Module. Name of teaching organisation, Department, the location and date.

Bibliography example:

FISH, J. (2012) Future of Information [Lecture] Academic Futures. Information Management Module. Staffordshire University, Library, Room OX33, 18th July 2012. In-text examples (Fish, 2012)
As indicated by Fish (2007)...

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Lecture Notes

Provide as much detail as possible if you are referencing from Lecture notes and/or handouts.

Format:

FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of Lecture – in brackets) Title of Lecture, Module Code - capitalised, [Lecture notes or handouts in square brackets] Title of Lecture notes distributed – in italics or underlined. Title of Module. Name of teaching organisation, Department, the location, date.

Bibliography example:

FISH, J. (2012) Future of Information, CC-FOINFOY2. [Lecture notes] Academic Futures. Information Management Module. Staffordshire University, Library, Room OX33, 18th July.

In-text examples

(Fish, 2012)
As indicated by Fish (2012)...

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Examples beginning with M

Maps

Format:
FAMILY/ SURNAME, Initials or ISSUING ORGANISATION. (Year of publication – in brackets) Title of map in italics or underlined. Sheet number – if available. Scale details. Series – if available. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:
ORDNANCE SURVEY. (1956) Map of Roman Britain, Scale sixteen miles to one inch. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

In-text example:

(Ordnance Survey, 1956) As can be seen in the Map of Roman Britain
(Ordnance Survey, 1956)

Market Survey report (printed)

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. Or CORPORATE AUTHOR/RESEARCH GROUP. (Year of publication - in brackets) Report Title including dates and series if available - in italics or underlined. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:

MINTEL (2008) Pizza and Pasta Restaurants - UK. London: Mintel.

In-text example:

(Mintel, 2002)
The trends highlighted by Mintel (2002)

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets) Market Survey Report (Online /electronic)

Market Survey report (Online)

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. or CORPORATE AUTHOR/RESEARCH GROUP. (Year of publication - in brackets) Report Title including dates and series if available - in italics or underlined [Online – in square brackets]. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher. Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by the date – in square brackets]

Bibliography format: MINTEL (2007) Leisure Venue Catering UK March 2007 [Online]. London: Mintel. Available from http://academic.mintel.com/ [Accessed: 25/04/2008]

In-text format:

(Mintel, 2007)
As highlighted by Mintel (2007)
“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets).

Music scores

Musical scores are treated the same as referencing a book.

Format:

FAMILY/ SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Title of score – in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:

NYMAN, M. (2003) Pieces from the Piano. [Sheet Music]. UK: Music Sales Ltd.

In-text example:

(Nyman, 2003)

Examples beginning with N

 

Newspaper article (printed article)

Format:

SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Title of Article. Title of Newspaper - in italics or underlined. Day and month of article. Page number of article - if available.

Bibliography example:

RANDERSON, J. (2008) Researchers find fish that can count up to four. The Guardian. 26th February.

In-text Example:

(Randerson, 2008)
Randerson’s (2008) article indicates that…
“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Newspaper article (Online / electronic article)

Format: FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Title of Article. Title of Newspaper - in italics or underlined. [Online] Day and month of article. Page number of article - if available. Available from – URL of database supplier. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets]

Bibliography example:

RANDERSON, J. (2008) Researchers find fish that can count up to four. The Guardian. [Online] 26th February. p.14. Available from: http://www.lexisnexis.com/uk. [Accessed: 22nd May 2008].

In-text example:

(Randerson, 2008) Randerson’s (2008) article indicates that… “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Newspaper article (no author)

If there is no author present, use the title of the newspaper – in italics of underlined to start your reference.

Format: Title of Newspaper – in italics of underlined. (Year of publication - in brackets). Title of Article. Day and month of article. Page number of article - if available. Bibliography example: The Guardian. (1987) Exploration of the Coast. Nov 24th. In-text example: (The Guardian, 1987)

The Guardian (1987) article indicates that…
“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

Newspaper Cartoon

Format:
FAMILY/SURNAME (Year of publication -in brackets) Title of Cartoon. [Cartoon] Title of Newspaper - in italics or underlined. Day and month of cartoon. Page number of cartoon - if available.

Bibliography example:

BATEMAN, A. (2008). What a Political battle. [Cartoon] East Coast Independent. 14th April 2008. p6.

In-text example: (Bateman, 2008)

…as depicted in Bateman’s (2008) cartoon.

No Author/Anonymous

For publications without individual authors use Anon instead of the author’s name. However, if you are referring to a newspaper article without an author, replace anon with the title of the Newspaper.

Format: ANON. (Year of publication - in brackets) Book Title - in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:

ANON. (2002) Atlas of Anatomy. Cobham, Surrey: Taj Books.

In-text example:

Human anatomy can be seen in this way (Anon, 2002)...

No publication date

Format: If the item you are referencing has no publication date or only an approximate or dubious date, use the following information to best describe the item:
  • If there is no date available use the abbreviation (n.d.) in brackets
  • If there is only an approximate date available precede the approximate date with a lowercase c. (for circa) in brackets, for example (c.1903).
Bibliography example:
DUNDEE CITY ART GALLERY and MUSEUM. (n.d.) Dundee Tiles 1880-1930. Dundee: Dundee City Art Gallery and Museum.

 

ROOSEVELT, T. (c.1886). Thomas Hart Benton. Boston and New York: Houghton-Mifflin and Company.

In-text example:

(Dundee City Art Gallery and Museum. n.d.)
This was shown at the exhibition hosted at the Dundee City Art Gallery and Museum (n.d.)

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets).

 


Examples starting with O

 

Official Publications

Format:

COUNTRY.NAME OF COMMITTEE, DEPARTMENT or ROYAL COMMISION (Year of publication – in brackets) Title of publication - in italics or underlined. Place of Publication: Publisher. (Paper number – if available in brackets).

Bibliography examples:

GREAT BRITAIN. HEALTHCARE COMMISSION, AUDIT COMMISSION for LOCAL AUTHORITIES in ENGLAND and WALES. NATIONAL AUDIT OFFICE. (2006) Tackling Child Obesity: First Steps. London: Stationery Office.

GREAT BRITAIN. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. (1995). London’s Ambulance Service: Government response to the Second Report from the Health Committee Session 1994-95. London: H.M.S.O (Cm 3009).

In-text example:

(Great Britain. Healthcare Commission, Audit Commission for Local Authorities in England and Wales. National Audit Office, 2006).
Statistics from the Great Britain Healthcare Commission, Audit Commission for Local Authorities in England and Wales. National Audit Office (2006) show that...

(Great Britain. Department of Health, 1995). As indicated by the Great Britain Department of Health (1995)

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets).

OfSTED Reports

It is important that confidentiality is not breached when referencing an OfSTED report which relates to a particular school.

Instead, simply the year of the report be referenced, the name of the school should NOT be included:

'..... a school inspection report (2015) found that'

You should use OfSTED as author.

Format:

OfSTED (Year of distribution - in brackets) School Inspection Report - italics. London: OfSTED.

Bibliography example:

OfSTED (Year of distribution - in brackets) School Inspection Report. London: OfSTED.

In-text:

(OfSTED, 2015)...

Official Publications - Online

*These examples are for the especial attention of Nursing Students

GREAT BRITAIN. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. (2012) Getting it right for Children, Young People and Families. [Online]  March 2012. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/216464/dh_133352.pdf.  [Accessed: 5th October 2015]

GREAT BRITAIN. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. (2014) Care and Support: What’s Changing? [Online] Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/care-and-support-whats-changing/care-and-support-whats-changing. [Accessed: 6th October 2015]

Online video (e.g. YouTube, Vimeo)

Online video citation should commence with the name of the originator (screen name) or organisation which produced the Online video.

Format:

FAMILY/ SURNAME, initials or ORGANISATION IF NO NAMED PERSON IS AVAILABLE. (Year of distribution - in brackets) Title of Online Video – in italics or underlined. If available indicate the Number and/or title if part of a series. [Online video – in square brackets]. Date of the Online video. Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets].

Bibliography example:

STAFFORDSHIRE UNIVERSITY. (2015) Centre of Excellence for Biomass at Staffordshire University [Online Video]. August 17th. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s2tgE9az6UE. [Accessed: August 20th 2015].

In-text:

If you refer to an Online video in the body of your work, the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics:
...as can be seen in Staffordshire University's presentation Centre of Excellence for Biomass at Staffordshrire University (2015).

Original works of Art

Material types can include: paintings, photographs, illustrations, ceramics, cartoons, drawing, etchings, sculptures, woodcut, etc. Your reference should state the artist’s name, its title and where the item can be located or viewed. If no name is available, use the title of the piece – in italics or underlined as the first element of the reference.

Format:

FAMILY/SURNAME, initials. (Year – in brackets) Title of artwork – in italics or underlined, [Material type – in square brackets]. Title of Art Gallery, Museum etc, Location or City

Bibliography example:

BROOM, S. (2002) Daylight. [Photograph]. Manor Art Gallery, Manchester.

CEDAR, M. (1938). Mars at Night. [Sculpture]. Manor Art Gallery, Manchester.

In-text example:

(Broom, 2002)
...highlighted by Cedar’s Mars at Night (1938)

 

 

Examples beginning with P

Play script (published)

If you are referring to the printed publication/script of a play, emphasis is given to the author first and the play is referenced as a book (see example):

Format:

FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Title of Play- in italics or underlined. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:
OSBORNE, J. (1957) Look Back in Anger. London: Faber and Faber.

In-text example:

(Osborne, 1957)
...supported by Osborne’s (1957) play Look Back in Anger...

“Direct quotations from a play are placed in double quotations marks” (playwrights’ Surname, followed by Year of Publication, Act, Scene and/or page number – in brackets)

 

Plays (performance)

If you refer to production and performance elements of a play that you have viewed within your assignment, your reference will need to give emphasis to the title of the play first (see examples)

Format:

Title of Play- in italics or underlined. By AUTHOR. (Year of publication - in brackets) [Play – in square brackets]. Production date. Theatre and Place of performance. Performers names. Director.

Bibliography example:

A Round of Applause. By HARRY GREEN. (2006) [Play]. First Produced 18th June. Round Theatre, Burns Wood. Performers: I. Bloggs & S. Jones. Director: David Smith.

 

Podcast

Podcast citations should commence with the name of the originator or organisation which produced the podcast.

Format:

FAMILY/SURNAME, initials or organisation if no named person is available. (Year of distribution - in brackets) Title of Podcast – in italics or underlined. Number and/or title of the episode – if needed. [Online – in square brackets]. Date of the Podcast. Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets]

Bibliography examples:

BBC RADIO 4. (2008) Material World: Severn Barrage & Palaeopathology introduced by Quentin Cooper. [Online]. Thursday 15th May. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/science/thematerialworld.shtml. [Accessed: 19th May 2015]

In-text example:

If you refer to a podcast in the body of your work, the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics: ...examined in BBC Radio 4’s podcast Material World: Severn Barrage & Palaeopathology (2008).

 

Poem (from an anthology)

Poems are not referenced in the same way as book chapters. In-text you need to mention the poem and poet and page number, but in the Bibliography you will need to reference the source (book, etc.) where you found the poem.

Format:

FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (ed.) or (eds.)-in brackets for editor(s) (Year of publication - in brackets) Book Title - in italics or underlined. Series title and volume - if available. Edition - if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Fictitious Bibliography example:

If you refer to a poem in your work from a book, for example a poem from the following book, you will need to reference the source (book) where the poem can be found: FISH, J. (2004) The Art of Poetry.
London: Fish and Sons.

In-text:

The poem Spring Time by Bloggs (Fish, 2004, p.67) shows...
This was highlighted in Bloggs’ Spring Time (Fish, 2004, p.67).

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

 


Examples beginning with R

 

Radio broadcast

As Radio broadcasts are the production of a collection of individuals, they should be cited using the title of the broadcast first. For programmes within a series, the episode should also be indicated after the series title.

Format:

Title - in italics or underlined. Number and/or title of the episode – if needed. (Year of distribution - in brackets) Name of broadcaster. Broadcast or transmission date.

Bibliography example:

It’s Not Just about the Music. 1968 Season. (2008) BBC Radio 4. Thursday 10th April.

In-text example:

If you refer to a radio broadcast in the body of your work, the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics:
...highlighted in It’s Not Just about the Music (2008) ...

 


Examples beginning with S

 

Secondary Referencing using Harvard

What is Secondary Referencing?

Secondary referencing occurs when you are reading a book or journal article whose author uses facts or information from research done by someone else, and you want to use this to support your own assignment.

How to Secondary Reference

There are 2 ways that you can approach a secondary reference:
  1. You locate the original research so that you can read, use and cite directly from this original source. This is often the preferred method as this shows that you have exercised and increased your own research for your assignment.
  2. In some instances this may not be possible as the original research may be difficult to find or gain access to. If you are confident that this secondary source is reliable and accurate you can refer to it in your own work using the Harvard rules for secondary referencing (see below for examples)
In-text example:
If you have read the book ‘Modern Organisations’ by Bill Jones (2007) and he refers to another author, Jean Smith and her ideas of ‘organisational devolution’ (1987) and you want to include Smith’s ideas, using the Harvard system your citation must indicate that you have used a secondary source and not the original work undertaken by Smith:

Jean Smith (1987), as summarized by Jones (2007) highlights the application of ‘organisational devolution’ to result in…

Or
Smith’s (1987) ‘organisational devolution’ indicates this possibility (in Jones 2007, p. 45)

Bibliography example:

When using the Harvard system in terms of secondary referencing your Bibliography only needs to give the details of the source that you have read for the assignment. Using the example above, you would refer to the main text (Jones, 2007) as JONES, B (2007). Modern Organisations. London: Routledge.

 

Social Media

Please see the sections covering Twitter and Facebook
 

Sound recording – audio CD, Cassette, Vinyl Records

Format:

FAMILY/SURNAME, initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Title-in italics or underlined. [Material type–in square brackets]. Place of Distribution: Distribution Company.

Bibliography example:

DYLAN, B. (2001) Love and Theft [CD] UK: Columbia Recordings.

In-text example:

If you refer to the title of a recording in the body of your work, the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics:
(Dylan, 2001)
...as influenced by Dylan’s Love and Theft (2001)...

 

Statutes (Acts of Parliament) - UK

Format: 

COUNTRY. Name of Act: Name of Sovereign. Chapter Number – in italics or underlined. (Year of Publication – in brackets) Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bibliography example:
GREAT BRITAIN. Human Rights Act 1998: Elizabeth ll. Chapter 42. (1998) London: The Stationery Office.

In-text example:

The Human Rights Act 1998 indicated that…

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

 

Statutory Instruments – UK

Format:
Name and date of Statutory Instrument – in italics or underlined. (SI number – in brackets).

Bibliography example:
The Rural Development (Enforcement) (England) Regulations 2007. (SI 2007/75).
The Air Quality Standards Regulations 2007. (SI 2007/64).

In-text example:
The Air Quality Standards Regulations 2007 indicated that...
The Rural Development (Enforcement) (England) Regulations, 2007). (SI 2007/64).

 

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

 


Examples starting with T

 

Television broadcast

As Television broadcasts are the production of a collection of individuals, they should be cited using the title of the broadcast first. For programmes within a series, the episode should also be indicated after the series title.

Format:

Series title – in italics or underlined. Number and/or title of the episode – if needed. (Year of distribution - in brackets) Transmitting organisation and channel, full date and time of transmission.

Bibliography examples:

Panorama. The Challenge of the Sixties. (2008) BBC4. Thursday 15th May. 17:45.

In-text example:

If you refer to a television broadcast in the body of your work, the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics: (Panorama, The Challenge of the Sixties, 2008)
...as examined in Panorama’s The Challenge of the Sixties (2008)

 

Television broadcast (Online)

Same advice for the above entry on Television Broadcasts but for Online services such as BOB (Box of Broadcasts), BBC iPlayer etc.

Format:
Series, program or film title – in italics or underlined. Number and/or title of the episode – if needed. (Year of distribution - in brackets) Transmitting organisation and channel [Online], full date and time of transmission. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets]

Bibliography example:

Alex Polzzi's Secret Italy. Episode 4. (2015) BBC4. [Online] Thursday 15th May. 17:45. Available at: http://bobnational.net/record/311346. [Accessed: 07/07/2015]

Attenborough and the Giant Egg. (2008) BBC2. [Online] Wednesday 2nd March. Available at: http://bbc.in/1JWlNCs. [Accessed: 25/03/2014]

In-text example:

If you refer to a television broadcast in the body of your work, the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics:
...as described in Alex Polzzi's Secret Italy (2015)
...David Attenborough suggests in Attenborough and the Giant Egg (2008)...

 

Thesis

Format:

FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of submission - in brackets) Title of Thesis - in italics or underlined. Degree statement. Degree Awarding Body. Location: Name of University.

Bibliography example:

BARNES, D. L. (2000) An Investigation into the Process of Formation of Operations Strategy in Small Manufacturing Companies. A Thesis Submitted in partial fulfilment of the Requirements of Staffordshire University for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Stoke-on-Trent: Staffordshire University.

In-text example:

(Barnes, 2000)
...indicated by Barnes (2000)

 

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

 

Twitter

Format:

FAMILY/SURNAME/ORGANISATION, initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Title - in italics or underlined. [Online] Date of post entry. Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets.

Bibliography example:

Staffs Uni. (2015) Animation Lecturer, Lauren Weston has produced a new book! [Online] August 17th. Available from - https://twitter.com/staffsunifact/status/633189646613237760. [Accessed: 20 August 2015].

In-text example:

(Staffs Uni, 2015) raised....

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets).

 


Examples starting with U

 

Unpublished Work

Format:

FAMILY/SURNAME, Initials. (Year of publication - in brackets) Item title – in italics or underlined. Unpublished.

Bibliography example:

BRICK, C. (2002) The Local. Unpublished.

In-text example:

(Brick, 2002)
This was the conclusion supported by Brick (2002)

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

 

UK Bills (House of Commons or House of Lords)

Format:

Name and year of Bill in italics or underlined. House of Parliament from which the bill originated in abbreviation format i.e. House of Lords = HL or House of Commons = HC, any relevant section numbers, if available, (number of the Bill – in brackets)

Bibliography example:

Climate Change Bill 2007-08. HL Bill (9)

In-text example:

As can be seen in the Climate Change Bill 2007-08...

“Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication, p. – followed by page number – in brackets)

 


Examples starting with W

 

Website

Format:

COMPANY/ORGANISATION/FAMILY/SURNAME, initials (if required) or name of website if no author is available. (Year - in brackets) Title of webpage – in italics or underlined. Any numbers if website is part of a series – if needed. [Online –in square brackets] Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets].

Bibliography format:

SULLIVAN, J. (2013) Social Networking Tips For Teachers. [Online] Available from: http://www.educationworld.com/a_tech/tech/tech256.shtml [Accessed: 21/07/2015].

WIRED (2011) #Riot: Self-Organized, Hyper-Networked Revolts—Coming to a City Near You. [Online] Available from: http://www.wired.com/2011/12/ff_riots/ [Accessed: 15/03/2015].

In-text example:

(Sullivan, 2013)
... as raised by Sullivan (2015)

(Wired, 2011)

... according to Wired (2011)

 

Website – Direct quote

Format:

COMPANY/ORGANISATION/FAMILY/SURNAME, initials (if required) or name of website if no author is available. (Year - in brackets) Title of webpage - in italics or underlined. [Online] Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets]

Bibliography example:

STROKE ASSOCIATION (2012) Stroke: A carer's guide. [Online] Available from: https://www.stroke.org.uk/sites/default/files/stroke_a_carers_guide.pdf. [Accessed: 19 March 2014]

In-text example:

(Stroke Association, 2012)
According to the Stroke Association (2012)...

 

Website – Web document

Format: FAMILY/SURNAME, initials or name of website if no author is available. (Year - in brackets) Title of web document – in italics or underlined. Any numbers as indicated on the web document, i.e. if part of a series - if needed. [Online – in square brackets] Date of document – if specified. Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets]

Bibliography format:

ENGLISH HERITAGE. (2005) Wind Energy and the Historic Environment. [Online] October 2005. Available from: http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/upload/pdf/Wind_Energy_(final).pdf. [Accessed: 20th May 2008]

In-text example:

(English Heritage, 2008) ...as indicated by English Heritage in their report Wind Energy and the Historic Environment (2005)

 

Wikis

Format:

NAME OF WIKI (Year - in brackets) Title of Wiki – in italics or underlined. [Online– in square brackets]. Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets]

Bibliography format:

SUBJECT WIKI for GEOGRAPHY LIBRARY RESOURCES –STAFFORDSHIRE UNIVERSITY. (2015) [Online] Available from: http://crwnwiki1.staffs.ac.uk/subjectwiki/Geography. [Accessed: 19th May 2015].

In-text example:

If you refer to a Wiki in the body of your work, the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics: (Subject Wiki for Geography Library Resources – Staffordshire University, 2012).

 

Youtube video 

Online video citation should commence with the name of the originator (screen name) or organisation which produced the Online video.

Format:

FAMILY/ SURNAME, initials or ORGANISATION IF NO NAMED PERSON IS AVAILABLE. (Year of distribution - in brackets) Title of Online Video – in italics or underlined. If available indicate the Number and/or title if part of a series. [Online video – in square brackets]. Date of the Online video. Available from - URL. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets].

Bibliography example:

STAFFORDSHIRE UNIVERSITY. (2015) Centre of Excellence for Biomass at Staffordshire University [Online Video]. August 17th. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s2tgE9az6UE. [Accessed: August 20th 2015].

In-text:

If you refer to an Online video in the body of your work, the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics:
...as can be seen in Staffordshire University's presentation Centre of Excellence for Biomass at Staffordshrire University (2015).

Harvard formats used in this document have been based on the following texts which can be found in the Library:

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE. (1990). BS5605:1990. Recommendations for citing and referencing published material. Milton Keynes: BSI.

NEVILLE, C. (2010). The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism.2ND edition. Open UP Study Skills. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

PEARS, R & SHIELDS, G. (2006) Cite Them Right: The Essential Guide to Referencing and Plagiarism. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Northumbria University Press.

Punctuation in Harvard

Harvard has no one true style of punctuation and it is not prescriptive about capitalisation authors' names in your bibliography.

The recommended Staffordshire University style suggests that you should use capitals for authors’ names within your bibliography but, if you decide to use upper and lower case within the authors’ names instead, you will not be marked down for this as long as you are consistent in the style you use.

Likewise, Staffordshire’s recommended version of Harvard does not stipulate specific styles of punctuation – rather it suggests a style to which you can adhere but, if you prefer not to use the recommended punctuation as shown in our guide, you will not be marked down as long as you are consistent in what you do.

Being consistent in how you present your references is the key!

You may also be given specific guidance from your tutor or Faculty.